More Output Current Swing
By Robert J. Widlar
Because almost all monolithic amplifiers use class-B output stages, they have good loaded output voltage swings, delivering ±10V at 5 mA with ±15V supplies. Demanding much more current from the integrated circuit would require, for one, that the output transistors be made considerably larger. In addition, the increased dissipation could give rise to troublesome thermal gradients on the chip as well as excessive package heating in high-temperature applications. It is therefore advisable to use an external buffer when large output currents are needed.
Figure 1. High Current Output Buffer
A simple way of accomplishing this is shown in Figure 1. A pair of complementary transistors are used on the output of the LM101 to get the increased current swing. Although this circuit does have a dead zone, it can be neglected at frequencies below 100 Hz because of the high gain of the amplifier. R1 is included to eliminate parasitic oscillations from the output transistors. In addition, adequate bypassing should be used on the collectors of the output transistors to insure that the output signal is not coupled back into the amplifier. This circuit does not have current limiting, but it can be added by putting 50Ω resistors in series with the collectors of Q1 and Q2.
1318 08 December 2007
A sample-and-hold circuit which combines the low input current of FET’s with the low offset voltage of monolithic amplifiers.
Taking the root of a number using log converters is a fairly simple matter. All that is needed is to take the log of a voltage, divide it by, say 1⁄2 for the square root, and then take the antilog.
This circuit is essentially a low-pass filter with a frequency response decreasing at 6 dB per octave.
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